Trees were cut down; they were used to
build levers, scaffolding and foundation.
Rocks were hewn and brought back. The finest
were used on the outside; on the inside they used uneven
Sometimes a kind of concrete was used to strengthen the tunnels or to make them
waterproof. In Germany the Romans used a combination
of lime, sand, stones and water (opus caementicium in
The Romans used several
instruments to map the countryside (chorobate, groma,
leveling staff and dioptra) and
a kind of hoisting crane + drilling machine.
In principle there are three
aqueducts: masonry, lead or earthenware pipes.
In Rome masonry was the most common version.
If there was no solid topsoil the Romans drilled
poles into the ground for the pillars. Then they made
a kind of wickerwork of wood. On this they placed the
stones. The Romans used cranes to lift heavy blocks to the top of buildings under
construction, but of course they were powered by people pulling ropes.
At the top of these pillars
came a mold for the arch. When ready the mold could
be taken away (although they did not invent arches in buildings, the Romans were the first
people to use them to construct bigger, wider buildings without having lots of
rows or pillars to hold the roof up).